Diabetic retinopathy

In diabetic retinopathy, there occur changes in the eye fundus that are a consequence of excessively high levels of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. High levels of glucose cause tiny blood vessels in the eye fundus to start swelling and then to leak fluid. Minor bleeding can occur at the site of the damaged vessels. In its early stages, this bleeding is not perceptible and causes no trouble to patients.

Problems in the progression of the disease

Problems in diabetic retinopathy occur with the progression of the disease when new vessels start to grow in the retina alongside the bleeding. This is why this phase of the disease is called the proliferative phase. In later stages of the disease, major bleeding typically also occurs in the vitreous, or so-called hematovitreus. Complications in diabetes can also result in retinal detachment, glaucoma and cataracts. As the disease progresses to its final stage, blindness is also possible.

Prevention is crucial

There is no effective medication for diabetic retinopathy treatment, so correct prevention is extremely important. The risk of developing this disease is significantly reduced by careful balancing of blood sugar levels, correct diet and medications, and regular check-ups of the eye fundus at least once per year. In some cases, when retinal bleeding is present, we decide to conduct laser photocoagulation, which does not actually correct the disease but does temporarily stop the progression of changes.

Related articles

  • Glaucoma

    Glaucoma is an eye disease that is indicated by increased intraocular pressure. This gradually leads to optic nerve damage that is first noticeable by a worsening of peripheral vision and can later lead to more severe visual impairment and, in worst cases, complete blindness.

  • Macular degeneration

    Macular degeneration is a disease progression that affects the area of the macula on the retina. This area has the greatest number of vision receptors and is also the area of sharpest visual acuity. Macular degeneration usually occurs in older adults. Many factors influence on the development and progression of this disease, including high blood pressure and poor circulation within the macula.

  • Retinal detachment

    Retinal detachment typically occurs because a critical layer of retinal tissue tears and results in tiny openings that allow eye fluid to enter the area just under the retina. This may lead to retinal detachment.


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