Patients afflicted by glaucoma usually have no problems for a very long period of time since problems become symptomatic only in late stages of the disease. There are many causes of the development of glaucoma and treatment primarily depends on the cause of the increased intraocular pressure. Treatment can be conservative using medications, but in some cases, surgery is required. The success in the treatment of all patients is regularly monitored with intraocular pressure measurements using tonometry and with periodic examinations of the eye fundus.
Macular degeneration is a disease progression that affects the area of the macula on the retina. This area has the greatest number of vision receptors and is also the area of sharpest visual acuity. Macular degeneration usually occurs in older adults. Many factors influence on the development and progression of this disease, including high blood pressure and poor circulation within the macula.
Retinal detachment typically occurs because a critical layer of retinal tissue tears and results in tiny openings that allow eye fluid to enter the area just under the retina. This may lead to retinal detachment.
In diabetic retinopathy, there occur changes in the eye fundus that are a consequence of excessively high levels of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. High levels of glucose cause tiny blood vessels in the eye fundus to start swelling and then to leak fluid. Minor bleeding can occur at the site of the damaged vessels. In its early stages, this bleeding is not perceptible and causes no trouble to patients.